General Information

Name: Ochtendung 2-3 - faunal assemblage

Overall Number of Objects: 4 003

First Description: Justus 2000


Property Status:

Copyright Holder(s):

Curator(s): Axel von Berg

Cultural Attribution: no cultural attribution

Geochronological Attribution:


Age Determination

Dating Abstract: Genesis possible in the late second-last glacial, or last interglacial, or early last glacial. Microfauna is of glacial type.

Dating Association: Relative Dating

Dating Analysis:



Large Mammals

Overall Number of Bones and Teeth: 544

MNI: 4


Small Mammals

Overall Number of Bones and Teeth: 544

MNI: 1


Other Animals

Overall Number of Bones and Teeth:




Evidence of Human or Carnivore Activity

Human Activity:

Carnivore Activity:


Linked Files / Pages

Collection Item(s):

Bibliography: Justus 2000

Multimedia Files:

Linked Pages:



Additional Content

Animal bone remains are abundant (n = 4 003). Chemical and physical preservation is poor. The fragmentation of the bones is very high: 2/3 of the finds are smaller than 5cm. 544 bone fragments could be specified. (Tabelle 15) Single determined bones of the large fauna belong to a lion (Panthera leo spelaeus), a marten (Mustelide), an elephant (Mammutus sp.), and a chamois (Rupicapra sp.). Few bone fragments belong to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and a bovide (Bos/Bison sp.). Most of the animal remains could be assigned to horse (Equus sp.), rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). (Tabellen 16 u. 17) The small fauna revealed marmot, lemming (Dicrostonyx and Lagurus lagurus) and voles (Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp.). The molluscs are typical species for glacial climate, as well as for transitional climate.
The analysis of the horse remains shows a clear selection of adult animals (3-11 years, MNI=3). The selection and the low proportion of carnivore bite marks are arguments for local human hunting activities. Upper extremities were de-fleshed, and flesh-rich cervical and thoracic portions exported. Flesh-poor skeletal parts remained at the site. The same pattern exists for the two juvenile individuals (4-30 months). The patterns of the rhinoceros bones show clear evidence for human hunting activities, especially for young animals. In contrast, bones from red deer show major carnivore bite marks and selection. It is not possible to determine whether the animals have been originally killed by humans or carnivores.
Archaeological interpretation/conclusion: Large animal remains show clear human hunting activities, mainly horse and juvenile rhinoceros. Several hunting episodes are probable.



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