General Information

Name: Neanderthal - NN 31

Synonym Name(s):

First Description:

Repository: Neanderthal Museum

Property Status:

Copyright Holder(s): Gerd-Christian Weniger

Curator(s): Bärbel Auffermann

Cultural Attribution:

Geochronological Attribution:


Taxon / Sex / Age Group

Taxon: Neanderthal

Sex: Undefined

Age Group: adult (20y or more)




Pathology / Preservation


Pathology Bibliography:

Preserved Skeletal Party: molar M2

Laterality: right

Polarity: upper

Preservation: complete

Preservation Details: Maxillary right permanent second molar; complete with roots (two buccal, one lingual) intact. Postmortem crack that runs mesiodistally through centre of crown.

Human Activity: no signs

Carnivore Activity: no


Age Determination

Dating Abstract:

Dating Association: Relative Dating

Dating Analysis:




X Coordinate:

Y Coordinate:

Z Coordinate:



Linked Files / Pages

Data Type: CT scan

Collection Item(s):

Bibliography: Schmitz & Thissen 2000; Schmitz 2003; Smith et al. 2006

Multimedia Files:
CT Neandertal - NN 31
6F Neanderthal NN 31
STL Neandertal - NN 31

Linked Pages: Germany - Neanderthal



Additional Content

Crown size and occlusal wear pattern (dentin exposure on protocone) similar to wear pattern of NN 16, NN 33 and NN 51 - there is a possibility that all of these dental elements derive from a single individual.
Diameter: 10.5mm (mesiodistal) and 13.1 (buccolingual). Distal interproximal facet is 4.9mm buccolingually; as in NN 16 mesial interproximal facet is slightly concave.
Buccal roots are compacted as in NN 16 and they exhibit distinct distal inclination. No taurodontism. Presence of 6.8mm groove extends in buccolingual direction at cementoenamel junction just below mesial interproximal concavity. It has been interpreted as palliative tooth pick use. There is indirect evidence of possible palliative function (additional multiple small diametre groves (<1mm) in enamel of wear facet perpendicular to buccolingual groove) which suggests long term therapeutic needs rather than practical hygiene or harmful habit.



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